Neal Miller

100 Year Anniversary

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Psychoanalysis & Science Bibliography


Miller, N. E. (1948).  Theory and experiment relating psychoanalytic displacement to stimulus-response generalization. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 155-178.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Comments on theoretical models. Illustrated by the development of a theory of conflict behavior. Journal of Personality, 20, 82-100.

Miller, N. E. (1957).  A psychologist speaks.  In H. D. Kruse (Ed.), Integrating the approaches to

mental disease (pp. 43-45).  New York: Hoeber.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Some implications of modern behavior theory for personality change and psychotherapy.  In D. Byrne & P. Worchel (Eds.), Personality change (pp. 149-175).  New York: Wylie.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Experiments relevant to psychopathology.  In F. C. Redlich, G. L. Klerman, R. K. McDonald, & J. F. O’Connor (Eds.), The university and community mental health (pp. 53-69).  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Visceral learning and other additional facts potentially applicable to psychotherapy.  In R. Porter (Ed.), The role of learning in psychotherapy (pp. 294-309).


Miller, N. E., Brown, J., Klebanoff, S., & Lipofsky, M. (1939).  Indecision and conflict; psychological theory tested by experiments on rats. Yale Science Magazine, 13, 22-33.

Miller, N. E. (with Sears, R. R., Mowrer, O. H., Doob, L. W., & Dollard, J.) (1941).  I. The frustration-aggression hypothesis.  Psychological Review, 48, 337-342.

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Learning & Motivation Bibliograpghy


Miller, N. E. (1941).  An experimental investigation of acquired drives.  Psychological Bulletin, 38, 534-535.  [abstract of paper presented at the annual meeting of the APA]

Miller, N. E. (1944).  Experimental studies of conflict behavior.  In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and behavior disorders (pp. 431-465), New York: Ronald Press.

Staff, Psychological Research Project (Pilot) [Miller, N. E. (Ed.)]. (1946).  Psychological research on pilot training in the AAF. American Psychologist, 1, 7-16.

Miller, N. E. (1948).  Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear- reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 89-101.

Miller, N. E. (1949).  Review: Theories of learning (E. R. Hilgard).  Psychological Bulletin, 46, 529-532.

Miller, N. E. (1950).  Social science and the art of advertising. Journal of Marketing, 14, 580-584.

Miller, N. E. (1950).   Outline on training and habituation of rats for laboratory work.  In R. W. Gerard (Ed.). Methods in medical research, (Vol. 3, pp. 216-218). Chicago: Yearbook Publishers.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Comments on multiple-process conceptions of learning. Psychological Review, 58, 375-381.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Learnable drives and rewards.  In S. S. Stevens (Ed.). Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 435-472).  New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, N. E. (1953).  The role of motivation in learning.  In Symposium on psychology learning basic to military training problems (pp. 103-116). Committee on Human Resources, Research and Development Board, Department of Defense. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Miller, N. E. (1954).  Drive, drive-reduction and reward.  In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Congress of Psychology (pp. 151-152), June 1954, Montreal. [Special issue of Acta Psychologica].

Miller, N. E. (1954).  Fear.  In R. H. Williams (Ed.). Human factors in military operations (pp. 269-281). Chevy Chase, MD: John Hopkins University Operations Research Office.

Miller, N. E. (1957).  Experiments on motivation; studies combining psychological, physiological, and pharmacological techniques.  Science, 126, 1271-


Miller, N. E. (1958).  Central stimulation and other new approaches to motivation and reward.  American Psychologist, 13, 100-108.

Miller, N. E. (1958).  Principles of learning by televised instructions.  In College teaching by television (pp. 28-42).  Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

Miller, N. E. (1959).  Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior,   motivation and social learning.  In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science, Study 1, Vol. 2 (pp. 196-292).  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miller, N. E. (1960).  Learning resistance to pain and fear: Effects of overlearning, exposure and rewarded exposure in context.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 137-145.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Analytical studies of drive and reward.  [Note: Address as President to the Sixty-Ninth Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York City, September 3, 1961.]  American Psychologist, 16, 739-754.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Some experiments on the mechanisms of motivation [in Russian].  Voprosy Psikhologii,4,June-July, 143-156.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Implications for theories of reinforcement.  In D. E. Sheer (Ed.), Electrical stimulation of the brain (pp. 575-581).  Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Miller, N. E. (1963).  Comments on “Approach-avoidance conflict in the mother-surrogate situation.”  Psychological Reports, 12, 773-774.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Physiological and cultural determinants of behavior.  [Note: this article is the result of an assignment to represent behavioral sciences, from physiology through anthropology, in a lecture on the program celebrating the Centennial of the National Academy of Sciences.]  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 51, 941-954.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Some psychophysiological studies of motivation and of the behavioural effects of illness.  Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 17, 1-20.

Miller, N. E. (1966).  The nature of appetite.  In S. M. Farber, N. L. Wilson, & R. H. L. Wilson (Eds.), Food and civilization (pp. 200-223).  Springfield, Illinois: Charles Thomas.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Experiments relevant to learning theory and psychopathology [in Russian].  Journal of Higher Nervous Activity I. P. Pavlov, 18, 249-265.

Miller, N. E. (1969).  Experiments relevant to learning theory and psychopathology.  In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Congress of

Psychology, Moscow, 1966, 146-168.  IUSP: Moscow.

Miller, N. E. (1971).  Extending the domain of learning.  In M. E. Meyer & F. H. Hite (Eds.), The application of learning principles to classroom instruction (pp. 46-62).  Bellingham, Washington: Western Washing State College.

Miller, N. E. (1973).  General comments on problems of motivation relevant to smoking.  In W. L. Dunn, Jr., (Ed.), Smoking behavior (pp. 209-214).  Washington, D.C.: Scripta Technica.

Miller, N. E. (1975).  Some clinical implications of visceral learning.  In M. L. Kietzman, S. Sutton, & J. Zubin (Eds.), Experimental approaches to psychopathology (pp. 245-253).  New York: Academic Press.

Miller, N. E. (1976).  Learning, stress, and psychosomatic symptoms [Note: Memorial paper in honor of Jerzy Konorski].  Acta Neurobiologica Experimentalis, 36, 141-156.

Miller, N. E. (1976).  The role of learning in physiological response to stress.  In G. Serban (Ed.), Psychopathology of human adaptation (pp. 25-46).  New York: Plenum Press.

Miller, N. E. (1977).  Foreword.  In J. Olds (Ed.), Drives and reinforcements: Behavioral studies of hypothalamic functions (pp. v-vi).  New York: Raven Press.

Miller, N. E. (1979).  Psychosomatic effects in learning.  In E. Meyer, III, & J. V. Brady (Eds.), Research in the psychobiology of human behavior (pp. 33-58).  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Miller, N. E. (1982).  Motivation and psychological stress.  In D. W. Pfaff (Ed.), The physiological mechanisms of motivation (pp. 409-432).  New York: Springer Verlag.

Miller, N. E. (1987).  Education for a lifetime of learning.  In G. C. Stone, S. M. Weiss, J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, J. Rodin, C. D. Belar, M. J. Follick, & J. E. Singer (Eds.), Health psychology: A discipline and a profession (pp. 3-13).  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Miller, N. E. (1994).  A bridge across a chasm: Learning and physiological regulation.  [Review of a book by Barry R. Dworkin, "Learning and Physiological Regulation."]  Contemporary Psychology, 39(11), 1027-1029.


Miller, N. E. (1935).  The influence of past experience upon the transfer of subsequent training.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.  [as referenced in:  Miller, N. E. (1944).  Experimental studies of conflict behavior.  In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and behavior disorders (pp. 431-465), New York: Ronald Press.]

Miller et. al.

Miller, N. E. & Brown, J. (1939).  A note on a temporal gradient of reinforcement.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 221-227.

Miller, N. E., & Bugelski, R. (1948).  Minor studies of aggression: II. The influence of frustrations imposed by the in-group on attitudes expressed toward out-groups. Journal of Psychology, 25, 437-442.

Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941).  Social Learning and Imitation.  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Miller, N. E., & Kraeling, D. (1952).  Displacement: Greater generalization of approach than avoidance in a generalized approach-avoidance conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 217-221.

Miller, N. E., & Murray, E. J. (1952).  Displacement: Steeper gradient of generalization of avoidance than of approach with age of habit controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 222-226.

Miller, N. E., & Murray, E. J. (1952).  Displacement and conflict: Learnable drive as a basis for the steeper gradient of avoidance than of approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 227-231.

Miller, N. E., & Senf, G. (1966).  Evidence for positive induction in instrumental discrimination learning.  In A. A. Hairapetian (Ed.), The central and peripheral mechanism of nervous activity (pp. 315-322). Erevan: The Armenian Academy of Sciences.

Further Contributions:

Bower, G. H., Miller, N. E. (1960).  Effects of amount of reward on strength of approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 59-62.

Bugelski, R., & Miller, N. E. (1938).  A spatial gradient in the strength of avoidance responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 494-505.

Delgado, J. M. R., Roberts, W. W., & Miller, N. E. (1954).  Learning motivated by electrical stimulation of the brain. [Note: First reported in 1953 as part of Miller’s Presidential Address to Division 3 of the American Psychological Association.]  American Journal of Physiology, 179, 587-593.

Dollard, J. & Miller, N. E. (1950).  Personality and Psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking and culture.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939).  Frustration and Aggression.  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Egger, M. D., & Miller, N. E. (1962).  Secondary reinforcement in rats as a function of information value and reliability of the stimulus.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 97-104.

Egger, M. D., & Miller, N. E. (1963).  When is a reward reinforcing?: An experimental study of the information hypothesis.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 132-137.

Kaufman, E. L., & Miller, N. E. (1949).  Effect of number of reinforcements on strength of approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 42, 65-74.

Lawrence, D. H., & Miller, N. E. (1947).  A positive relationship between reinforcement and resistance to extinction produced by removing a source of confusion from a technique that had produced opposite results.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37, 494-509.

Linton, H. B., & Miller, N. E. (1951).  The effect of partial reinforcement on behavior during satiation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 44, 142-148.

Mowrer, O. H., & Miller, N. E. (1942).  A multi-purpose learning-demonstration apparatus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 163-170.

Myers, A. K., & Miller, N. E. (1954).  Failure to find a learned drive based on hunger; evidence for learning motivated by “exploration.” Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 428-436.

Porter, L. W., & Miller, N. E. (1957).  Training under two drives, alternately present, vs. training under a single drive.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 1-7.

Sears, R. R., Hovland, C. I., & Miller, N. E. (1940).  Minor studies of aggression: I. Measurement of aggressive behavior.  Journal of Psychology, 9, 275-295.

Senf, G., & Miller, N. W. (1967).  Evidence for positive induction in discrimination learning.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 64, 121-127.

Trapold, M. A., Miller, N. E., & Coons, E. E. (1960).  All-or-none versus progressive approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 293-296.

Posted 9 years, 8 months ago at 3:29 am.

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Psychoanalysis & Science

In the area of psychoanalysis, Miller examined Freudian concepts from a learning perspective, specifically stimulus-response theory.  Notions including frustration and aggression, approach-avoidance conflict behavior and displacement were meticulously investigated and finally explained via learning terminology.

 The current section provides a detailed description of Miller’s foray in to psychoanalysis and reveals the process used in his attempt to integrate psychoanalysis and learning theory. In addition, a list of published works related to this content is featured.



In his Ph.D. dissertation in 1935 Miller demonstrated that mental acts such as thoughts are themselves responses that function as response-produced cues to which other responses can be associated, as in mental counting when thinking one number is the cue to thinking the next.  Miller noted that anything which inhibits a thought (such as anxiety) can therefore block the next thought to which it is a cue from occurring – shades of Freud’s theory of repression and, in fact, the impetus for Miller doing a post-doc at Freud’s Psychoanalytic Institute.  Later investigations of Freudian concepts led to Miller’s work on frustration and aggression, approach-avoidance conflict behavior, displacement and a collaboration with John Dollard producing two important books, “Social Learning and Imitation” and “Personality and Psychotherapy.”  The latter was very important in training the first post-World-War-II generation of clinical psychologists in the treatment of neuroses.  It emphasized the importance in therapy of the verbal use of response-produced cues to establish generalizations that should be perceived in one’s life but aren’t, or distinctions between difference, which, likewise, should be perceived but, again, aren’t.

Miller’s articles related to Psychoanalysis

Paul Wachtel shares thoughts on integrative psychoanalysis


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