Neal Miller

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Niels Birbaumer: Paralysis, scoliosis and learning: a tribute to my friend Neal Miller

During the early seventies we read the first time about a curare experiment: completely paralyzed rats were able to learn in an operant learning situation to control different aspects of the physiology. These reports which later turned out to be unreplicable electrified us because they opened the door for learning treatment of medical diseases. I decided to meet the hero behind these experiments in person and travelled to New York and visited Neal in his lab at the Rockefeller University at 1st Avenue. I vividly recall this first formal meeting of a young researcher and behavior therapist from Vienna with one of the most famous psychologists of all times. It was a very friendly and warm encounter from the beginning. Neal  recalled his experience with psychoanalysis in Vienna during the early thirties and the simultaneous rise of the Nazi movement, antisemitism and all the other political illnesses which plague Vienna and Austria until today (I returned my Austrian passport after the Neo-Nazi party of Haider was accepted in the government during the 90ties). This first meeting with Neal was probably around 1972 or 1973. He showed me the lab and I saw different experimental set-ups for research on motivation (hunger and thirst), but nothing of the curare experiments. He told me that he couldn’t show the experiments to me on that day because the responsible graduate student wasn’t there. On the same day I met Barry Dworkin, at that time also a graduate student, who explained to me that they had some problems with the replication of the curare experiments and introduced me to another problem, namely the biofeedback treatment of scoliosis and kyphosis. Barry and I became lifelong friends since that day and published many papers on scoliosis and baroreceptor physiology and blood pressure learning over the years. It was Barry Dworkin who tried to replicate the curare experiments over many decades without success, but discovering many other new effects of learning, particularly classical conditioning on nerve firing. It was Barry Dworkin who in the late 80ties wrote the famous paper where he tried to explain the lack of replication and pointed out that “experimenter effects” may have caused the early success of these experiments. After several visits in these early days at Rockefeller and the beginning of an international cooperative project on the behavioral treatment of scoliosis and kyphosis which was later published in PNAS, Neal and Barry visited my laboratory at Tübingen and we organized a big international meeting on biofeedback and operant treatment of disease on the occasion of the 500th birthday of Tübingen University at a romantic medieval castle near Tübingen. The papers of this conference were published in a book edited by Birbaumer and Kimmel (Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass. 1979). The fact that Neal’s name became associated so strongly with the failure of replication of the curare experiments and the lack of replicability of many biofeedback studies in general is very unfortunate because Neal’s work, particularly his book on psychotherapy is the foundation and the beginning of behavior therapy and experimentally based psychotherapy in general, now dominating psychological and psychiatric treatment all over the world. Neal’s motivation to write that book and to build an experimentally oriented psychotherapy was driven by his appalling experience with psychoanalysis and the psychoanalysts in Vienna: he started a self-analysis with Ferenci or one of the students of Ferenci during this year in Vienna and experienced the pseudo-logic and mystical drive concept as a trainee himself. Neal was one of the psychologically most healthy persons I ever met in my life and that was probably the basis of his sensitivity to the pathologizing theory and practice of psychoanalysis. Only a healthy mind can create such an intellectual wealth and scholarly productivity as the work of Neal Miller.
Below I cite the papers Neal Miller, Barry Dworkin and myself wrote or edited:

Birbaumer, N. & Kimmel, H. (Eds.) (1979). Biofeedback and Self-Regulation.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Ass.

Birbaumer, N., Cevey, B., Dworkin, B. & Miller, N.E. (1984). Biofeedback in der Orthopädie [Biofeedback in orthopaedics].  Forschung. Mitteilungen der DFG.

Dworkin, B., Miller, N.E., Dworkin, S., Birbaumer, N. , Brines, M., Jonas, S., Schwentker, E. & Graham, J. (1985). Behavioral method for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA, 82, 2493-2497.

Birbaumer, N., Dworkin, B., Elbert, T. & Rockstroh, B. (1987). Stimulation der Barorezeptoren erhöht die Schmerzschwelle bei Bluthochdruck [Stimulation of baroreceptors raises pain threshold in hypertensives]. In: Nutzinger u.a. (Eds.): Herzphobie [Heart phobia]. Ferdinand Enke Verlag,  pp. 92-102.

Larbig, W., Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N., Rockstroh, B. & Dworkin, B. (1987). Barorezeptorenstimulation und Antinozizeption. Experimentelle Labor­unter­suchungen zum lernpsychologischen Entstehungsmodell der Hype­r­tonie [The stimulation of baroreceptors and antinociception. Experimental studies in the laboratory concerning the behavioral ideology of hypertension]. In: F. Lamprecht (Ed): Spezialisierung und Integration in Psychosomatik und Psychotherapie [Spezialisation and integration in psychosomatic medicine]. Heidelberg: Springer, 319-324.

Rockstroh, B., Dworkin, B., Lutzenberger, W., Larbig, W., Ernst, M., Elbert, T. & Birbaumer, N. (1988). The influence of baroreceptor activation on pain perception.  In: Elbert, T., Langosch, W., Steptoe, A., Vaitl, D. (Eds.): Behavioral Medicine of Cardiovascular Disorders, John Wiley & Sons,  49-60.

Rau, H., Schweizer, R., Zhuang, P., Pauli, P., Brody, S., Larbig, W., Heinle, H., Müller, M., Elbert, T., Dworkin, B. & Birbaumer, N. (1993). Cigarette smoking, blood lipids, and baroreceptor-modulated nociception. Psychopharma­cology, 110, 337-341.

Birbaumer, N., Flor, H., Cevey, B., Dworkin, B. & Miller, N.E. (1994). Behavioral treatment of scoliosis and kyphosis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 6, 623-628.

Dworkin, B.R., Elbert, T., Rau, H., Birbaumer, N., Pauli, P., Droste, C. & Brunia, C.H.M. (1994). Central effects of baroreceptor activation in humans: Attenuation of skeletal reflexes and pain perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 91, 6329-6333.

Elbert, T., Dworkin, B.R., Rau, H., Pauli, P., Birbaumer, N., Droste, C. & Brunia, C.H.M. (1994). Sensory effects of baroreceptor activation and perceived stress together predict long-term blood pressure elevations. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 1(3), 215-228.

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A reading from Hall and Lindsey about S-R theory of personality

Introduction to S-R theory of personality

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An Overview of Neal Miller’s contributions

The most basic professional facts and themes of his life – which are elaborated upon elsewhere in this website – are as follows: He is ranked among the ten most eminent psychologists of the 20th Century and was personally awarded the coveted National Medal of Science by President Johnson in 1964.  He was highly influential as a learning theorist, neuroscientist, science statesman, educator, a proponent of the important contributions of animal research, and  and above all, a consummate experimentalist who functioned as a role model for his field.  He authored 8 books and over 276 articles and trained over 150 students and post-docs in research.

 

In the first phase of his scientific career beginning around 1935, Miller had great success in showing parsimoniously that the same principles evident in instrumental learning and motivation were operative in problem solving and in Freudian and social phenomena, and that the applications of these principles had real-life clinical benefits.  Then starting around 1950 he took his research physiologically into the brain and the gut to examine two burning theoretical issues of the time: whether all drives (such as hunger) were learnable to the cues of a situation, as he had shown fear to be, and whether all rewards for strengthening a behavior depended upon there immediately following a reduction in the drive motivating that behavior.  The innovative techniques and the exciting findings that then copiously emerged from his laboratory bore upon the nature of appetite regulation, memory, brain circuits and neurotransmitter systems mediating feeding and reward, and upon the application of pharmacological techniques to investigate behavior and vice versa.  The recognition which all of this afforded Miller positioned him in 1969 to play a founding role in bridging together behavioral and physiological researchers interested in the brain into forming the Society for Neuroscience.  But beginning a few years beforehand he took advantage of an opportunity to pursue again his faith in parsimony, in this case that the same principles of reward operative in instrumental learning in the somatic nervous system would also under the right conditions result in instrumental learning in the autonomic nervous systems – the payoff, if true, being enormous for understanding the origins and treatment of psychosomatic illnesses.  But by around 1973 his laboratory’s efforts, initially auguring great promise, failed to show indisputably in the rat that autonomic increases or decreases of heart-rate in the somatically paralyzed rat could be instrumentally rewarded although evidence remained that autonomic regulation of blood pressure both in the normal and hemiplegic human may be brought under instrumental control.  As a side benefit, the sensitive biofeedback technology that had been developed to make consciously detectible otherwise subliminal physiological process was brought successfully to bear on the treatment of a number of medical ailments.  This early advocacy of the uses of the technology and the underlying learning principles involved resulted in Miller becoming widely credited as one of the founders of the field of biofeedback.  His focus on the role that behavioral factors at play in health issues broadened in the last stage of his research career to include: 1) these factors’ involvement in stress and the underlying physiological processes, 2) the role of behavioral interventions to overcome learned non-use that prevents much of the potential for recovery from stroke, and 3) the use of these interventions in the prevention or minimalization of motion-sickness in astronauts.  These involvements and, again, more broadly his advocacy of the analysis of behavioral factors as contributors to illness and health led to his being identified as a founding father of the fields of health psychology and behavioral medicine.

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Rockefeller University Obituaries

Neal Miller, a pioneer in thefield of neuroscience who in1965 received the U.S. NationalMedal of Science, the nation’shighest award for scientificachievement, died March 23 inHamden, Connecticut. Millerwas 92. He was a member ofthe Rockefeller faculty from1966 to 1988.Miller was best known for hisonce-unorthodox theory that thebody’s so-called “involuntary”functions, such as heart rate, canbe controlled in the same way asvoluntary functions. His researchchallenged the assumption thatvoluntary actions were the solefunctions under our control.Miller trained laboratory animalsand humans to control heartbeat,blood flow and other visceraland glandular activities, and heapplied his theories clinically tosuch disorders as hypotension,hypertension and scoliosis.He also made important contributionsto the fields of physiologicalpsychology and the evolution oflearning theory.His work influencedgenerations of researchers.Alfred E. Mirsky Professor BruceS. McEwen, head of the Haroldand Margaret Milliken HatchLaboratory of Neuroendocrinology,who began his Rockefeller careeras an assistant professor in Miller’slab, recalls his superb teachingabilities. “He strongly encouragedand supported me as a youngscientist in my studies of stressand sex hormone actions in thebrain, and his lab provided awonderful environment for meto learn about behavioral science.Neal was one of thefounders of behavioral medicineand strongly influenced me overthe years to apply basic researchknowledge about stress hormoneactions to a better understandingof human health and disease.”

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Biofeedback and Visceral Learning

We present one of Neal’s more influential articles regarding biofeedback.

Written in 1978, Neal defines biofeedback; then  deals with the question of which visceral responses can be affected by instrumental training.

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APA The Neal Miller Lecture Program

The Neal Miller Lecture Program is an annual Science Directorate program developed by the Board of Scientific Affairs. Each year, one eminent scientist is selected to give a lecture dedicated to neuroscience and animal research at the APA Annual Convention. The board chose to create this program in honor of the renowned neuroscientist, Neal Miller, PhD, for his outstanding contributions to neuroscience and animal research in psychology. Dr. Miller accepted the invitation to deliver the first lecture in 1994.

Neal Miller Lecturers 1994-2009

2009-Michael Meaney, PhD
2008- Klaus Miczek, PhD
2007-C. Sue Carter, PhD
2006-Bruce McEwen, PhD
2005-Lynn Nadel, PhD
2004-J. Bruce Overmier, PhD
2003-Edward Taub, PhD
2002-Elizabeth Gould, PhD
2001-Steven Maier, PhD
2000-Linda Bartoshuk, PhD
1999-Robert Ader, PhD
1998-Martha McClintock, PhD
1997-Joseph LeDoux, PhD
1996-Larry Squire, PhD
1995-Nancy Wexler, PhD
1994-Neal Miller, PhD

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The story behind Miller’s Vienna trip (In Neal’s own words)

Miller had an insight about the similarity between Freud’s conception of repression and Pavlov’s conception of inhibition, he resolved to extend Hull’s program to an examination of Freudian theory and practice in terms of the laws of learning.
He was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship to study in Vienna at Freud’s Psychoanalytic Institute where he underwent a didactic analysis with Heinz Hartmann. He long regretted he had turned down at least one analytic session with the great Freud himself because an hourly $20 fee seemed more than he could afford…
The following script is \millers own words about his interest in Psychoanalysis

Neal Miller Own Words About Psychonalysis

Neal Miller’s own words about his interest in Freudian theory
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Psychoanalysis & Science Bibliography

Miller:

Miller, N. E. (1948).  Theory and experiment relating psychoanalytic displacement to stimulus-response generalization. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 43, 155-178.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Comments on theoretical models. Illustrated by the development of a theory of conflict behavior. Journal of Personality, 20, 82-100.

Miller, N. E. (1957).  A psychologist speaks.  In H. D. Kruse (Ed.), Integrating the approaches to

mental disease (pp. 43-45).  New York: Hoeber.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Some implications of modern behavior theory for personality change and psychotherapy.  In D. Byrne & P. Worchel (Eds.), Personality change (pp. 149-175).  New York: Wylie.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Experiments relevant to psychopathology.  In F. C. Redlich, G. L. Klerman, R. K. McDonald, & J. F. O’Connor (Eds.), The university and community mental health (pp. 53-69).  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Visceral learning and other additional facts potentially applicable to psychotherapy.  In R. Porter (Ed.), The role of learning in psychotherapy (pp. 294-309).

Miller et.al.

Miller, N. E., Brown, J., Klebanoff, S., & Lipofsky, M. (1939).  Indecision and conflict; psychological theory tested by experiments on rats. Yale Science Magazine, 13, 22-33.

Miller, N. E. (with Sears, R. R., Mowrer, O. H., Doob, L. W., & Dollard, J.) (1941).  I. The frustration-aggression hypothesis.  Psychological Review, 48, 337-342.

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Learning & Motivation Bibliograpghy

Miller:

Miller, N. E. (1941).  An experimental investigation of acquired drives.  Psychological Bulletin, 38, 534-535.  [abstract of paper presented at the annual meeting of the APA]

Miller, N. E. (1944).  Experimental studies of conflict behavior.  In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and behavior disorders (pp. 431-465), New York: Ronald Press.

Staff, Psychological Research Project (Pilot) [Miller, N. E. (Ed.)]. (1946).  Psychological research on pilot training in the AAF. American Psychologist, 1, 7-16.

Miller, N. E. (1948).  Studies of fear as an acquirable drive: I. Fear as motivation and fear- reduction as reinforcement in the learning of new responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 89-101.

Miller, N. E. (1949).  Review: Theories of learning (E. R. Hilgard).  Psychological Bulletin, 46, 529-532.

Miller, N. E. (1950).  Social science and the art of advertising. Journal of Marketing, 14, 580-584.

Miller, N. E. (1950).   Outline on training and habituation of rats for laboratory work.  In R. W. Gerard (Ed.). Methods in medical research, (Vol. 3, pp. 216-218). Chicago: Yearbook Publishers.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Comments on multiple-process conceptions of learning. Psychological Review, 58, 375-381.

Miller, N. E. (1951).  Learnable drives and rewards.  In S. S. Stevens (Ed.). Handbook of experimental psychology (pp. 435-472).  New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Miller, N. E. (1953).  The role of motivation in learning.  In Symposium on psychology learning basic to military training problems (pp. 103-116). Committee on Human Resources, Research and Development Board, Department of Defense. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Miller, N. E. (1954).  Drive, drive-reduction and reward.  In Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Congress of Psychology (pp. 151-152), June 1954, Montreal. [Special issue of Acta Psychologica].

Miller, N. E. (1954).  Fear.  In R. H. Williams (Ed.). Human factors in military operations (pp. 269-281). Chevy Chase, MD: John Hopkins University Operations Research Office.

Miller, N. E. (1957).  Experiments on motivation; studies combining psychological, physiological, and pharmacological techniques.  Science, 126, 1271-

1278.

Miller, N. E. (1958).  Central stimulation and other new approaches to motivation and reward.  American Psychologist, 13, 100-108.

Miller, N. E. (1958).  Principles of learning by televised instructions.  In College teaching by television (pp. 28-42).  Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education.

Miller, N. E. (1959).  Liberalization of basic S-R concepts: Extensions to conflict behavior,   motivation and social learning.  In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science, Study 1, Vol. 2 (pp. 196-292).  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Miller, N. E. (1960).  Learning resistance to pain and fear: Effects of overlearning, exposure and rewarded exposure in context.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 137-145.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Analytical studies of drive and reward.  [Note: Address as President to the Sixty-Ninth Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, New York City, September 3, 1961.]  American Psychologist, 16, 739-754.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Some experiments on the mechanisms of motivation [in Russian].  Voprosy Psikhologii,4,June-July, 143-156.

Miller, N. E. (1961).  Implications for theories of reinforcement.  In D. E. Sheer (Ed.), Electrical stimulation of the brain (pp. 575-581).  Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press.

Miller, N. E. (1963).  Comments on “Approach-avoidance conflict in the mother-surrogate situation.”  Psychological Reports, 12, 773-774.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Physiological and cultural determinants of behavior.  [Note: this article is the result of an assignment to represent behavioral sciences, from physiology through anthropology, in a lecture on the program celebrating the Centennial of the National Academy of Sciences.]  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 51, 941-954.

Miller, N. E. (1964).  Some psychophysiological studies of motivation and of the behavioural effects of illness.  Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 17, 1-20.

Miller, N. E. (1966).  The nature of appetite.  In S. M. Farber, N. L. Wilson, & R. H. L. Wilson (Eds.), Food and civilization (pp. 200-223).  Springfield, Illinois: Charles Thomas.

Miller, N. E. (1968).  Experiments relevant to learning theory and psychopathology [in Russian].  Journal of Higher Nervous Activity I. P. Pavlov, 18, 249-265.

Miller, N. E. (1969).  Experiments relevant to learning theory and psychopathology.  In Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Congress of

Psychology, Moscow, 1966, 146-168.  IUSP: Moscow.

Miller, N. E. (1971).  Extending the domain of learning.  In M. E. Meyer & F. H. Hite (Eds.), The application of learning principles to classroom instruction (pp. 46-62).  Bellingham, Washington: Western Washing State College.

Miller, N. E. (1973).  General comments on problems of motivation relevant to smoking.  In W. L. Dunn, Jr., (Ed.), Smoking behavior (pp. 209-214).  Washington, D.C.: Scripta Technica.

Miller, N. E. (1975).  Some clinical implications of visceral learning.  In M. L. Kietzman, S. Sutton, & J. Zubin (Eds.), Experimental approaches to psychopathology (pp. 245-253).  New York: Academic Press.

Miller, N. E. (1976).  Learning, stress, and psychosomatic symptoms [Note: Memorial paper in honor of Jerzy Konorski].  Acta Neurobiologica Experimentalis, 36, 141-156.

Miller, N. E. (1976).  The role of learning in physiological response to stress.  In G. Serban (Ed.), Psychopathology of human adaptation (pp. 25-46).  New York: Plenum Press.

Miller, N. E. (1977).  Foreword.  In J. Olds (Ed.), Drives and reinforcements: Behavioral studies of hypothalamic functions (pp. v-vi).  New York: Raven Press.

Miller, N. E. (1979).  Psychosomatic effects in learning.  In E. Meyer, III, & J. V. Brady (Eds.), Research in the psychobiology of human behavior (pp. 33-58).  Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Miller, N. E. (1982).  Motivation and psychological stress.  In D. W. Pfaff (Ed.), The physiological mechanisms of motivation (pp. 409-432).  New York: Springer Verlag.

Miller, N. E. (1987).  Education for a lifetime of learning.  In G. C. Stone, S. M. Weiss, J. D. Matarazzo, N. E. Miller, J. Rodin, C. D. Belar, M. J. Follick, & J. E. Singer (Eds.), Health psychology: A discipline and a profession (pp. 3-13).  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Miller, N. E. (1994).  A bridge across a chasm: Learning and physiological regulation.  [Review of a book by Barry R. Dworkin, "Learning and Physiological Regulation."]  Contemporary Psychology, 39(11), 1027-1029.

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION

Miller, N. E. (1935).  The influence of past experience upon the transfer of subsequent training.  Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University.  [as referenced in:  Miller, N. E. (1944).  Experimental studies of conflict behavior.  In J. McV. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and behavior disorders (pp. 431-465), New York: Ronald Press.]

Miller et. al.

Miller, N. E. & Brown, J. (1939).  A note on a temporal gradient of reinforcement.

Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 221-227.

Miller, N. E., & Bugelski, R. (1948).  Minor studies of aggression: II. The influence of frustrations imposed by the in-group on attitudes expressed toward out-groups. Journal of Psychology, 25, 437-442.

Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941).  Social Learning and Imitation.  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Miller, N. E., & Kraeling, D. (1952).  Displacement: Greater generalization of approach than avoidance in a generalized approach-avoidance conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 217-221.

Miller, N. E., & Murray, E. J. (1952).  Displacement: Steeper gradient of generalization of avoidance than of approach with age of habit controlled. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 222-226.

Miller, N. E., & Murray, E. J. (1952).  Displacement and conflict: Learnable drive as a basis for the steeper gradient of avoidance than of approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43, 227-231.

Miller, N. E., & Senf, G. (1966).  Evidence for positive induction in instrumental discrimination learning.  In A. A. Hairapetian (Ed.), The central and peripheral mechanism of nervous activity (pp. 315-322). Erevan: The Armenian Academy of Sciences.

Further Contributions:

Bower, G. H., Miller, N. E. (1960).  Effects of amount of reward on strength of approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 59-62.

Bugelski, R., & Miller, N. E. (1938).  A spatial gradient in the strength of avoidance responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 494-505.

Delgado, J. M. R., Roberts, W. W., & Miller, N. E. (1954).  Learning motivated by electrical stimulation of the brain. [Note: First reported in 1953 as part of Miller’s Presidential Address to Division 3 of the American Psychological Association.]  American Journal of Physiology, 179, 587-593.

Dollard, J. & Miller, N. E. (1950).  Personality and Psychotherapy: An analysis in terms of learning, thinking and culture.  New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dollard, J., Miller, N. E., Doob, L. W., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1939).  Frustration and Aggression.  New Haven: Yale University Press.

Egger, M. D., & Miller, N. E. (1962).  Secondary reinforcement in rats as a function of information value and reliability of the stimulus.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 97-104.

Egger, M. D., & Miller, N. E. (1963).  When is a reward reinforcing?: An experimental study of the information hypothesis.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 56, 132-137.

Kaufman, E. L., & Miller, N. E. (1949).  Effect of number of reinforcements on strength of approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 42, 65-74.

Lawrence, D. H., & Miller, N. E. (1947).  A positive relationship between reinforcement and resistance to extinction produced by removing a source of confusion from a technique that had produced opposite results.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37, 494-509.

Linton, H. B., & Miller, N. E. (1951).  The effect of partial reinforcement on behavior during satiation. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 44, 142-148.

Mowrer, O. H., & Miller, N. E. (1942).  A multi-purpose learning-demonstration apparatus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 31, 163-170.

Myers, A. K., & Miller, N. E. (1954).  Failure to find a learned drive based on hunger; evidence for learning motivated by “exploration.” Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 47, 428-436.

Porter, L. W., & Miller, N. E. (1957).  Training under two drives, alternately present, vs. training under a single drive.  Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 1-7.

Sears, R. R., Hovland, C. I., & Miller, N. E. (1940).  Minor studies of aggression: I. Measurement of aggressive behavior.  Journal of Psychology, 9, 275-295.

Senf, G., & Miller, N. W. (1967).  Evidence for positive induction in discrimination learning.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 64, 121-127.

Trapold, M. A., Miller, N. E., & Coons, E. E. (1960).  All-or-none versus progressive approach in an approach-avoidance conflict.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 53, 293-296.

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